Wednesday, September 17, 2014

Confirming the Diagnosis of Addison's Disease in Dogs on Corticosteroids


Is it possible to confirm diagnosis of Addison's disease with an ACTH stimulation test after treatment has been initiated? My patient is a 6-year-old, male West Highland White Terrier seen on an emergency basis for severe lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia that all began shortly after he was at the groomers. There was no history of dietary indiscretion in this dog.

A serum chemistry profile revealed hypoglycemia (glucose, 61 mg/dl), hyperphosphatemia (phosphorus, 9.1 mg/dl), hyponatremia (130 mEq/L), and hyperkalemia (6.1 mg/dl). The dog was also moderately azotemic, with a serum urea nitrogen of 52 mg/dl and serum creatinine of 2.2 mg/dl.

The dog was treated at the emergency clinic overnight with IV dexamethasone and IV fluids (normal saline). The following morning, he was given an injection of IM Percorten-V (25 mg) and started on oral prednisone (2.5 mg once daily).

He has now been home a week and has shown a marked response to replacement therapy. The dog is scheduled to recheck with me in a few days to recheck his serum chemistry panel and electrolytes. Although this case certainly seems to fit a diagnosis of primary hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's disease), I'd be happier if we could confirm the diagnosis with an ACTH stimulation test.

Is that possible, now that the dog has been treated with dexamethasone, prednisone, and Percorten-V?

My Response:

Yes, you certainly can (and should) do an ACTH stimulation test to confirm the preliminary diagnosis of Addison's disease, even after treatment has been instituted.

Confirming the diagnosis by documenting low serum cortisol secretion before and after ACTH stimulation is always a very good idea, since many other diseases can mimic the clinical features seen with this disease. In addition, even having the classical electrolyte changes associated with Addison's disease (hyponatremia, hypocholemia, and hyperkalemia) are not totally diagnostic, inasmuch as other diseases (e.g., whipworms, renal failure, pancreatitis) can also produce the same electrolyte abnormalities in some dogs.

Diagnostic workup for dogs with suspected Addison's disease on treatment with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids
On your recheck in a week, this is what I'd recommend. First of all, if the dog is doing well, have the owners stop the prednisone for at least 24 hours before the recheck exam and ACTH stimulation test is scheduled (48 hours is even better). The Percorten-V has minimal to no glucocorticoid activity so that drug isn't going to interfere with the results of the ACTH stimulation test.

If the dog is normal or is suffering from nonadrenal illness (but does not have Addison's disease), the glucocorticoid treatment (both the IV dexamethasone and oral prednisone) might result in adrenocortical suppression, but not nearly to the degree that we see in dogs with Addison's disease.
  • Dogs with primary Addison's disease generally have very low basal and post-ACTH cortisol concentrations (both cortisol values less than 1.0 μg/dl in almost all dogs and always less than 2.0 μg/dl). 
  • In dogs treated with glucocorticoids that develop suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the basal cortisol value may be low and the cortisol response to ACTH stimulation may be abnormal and "blunted."
  • However, the serum cortisol values in dogs that do not have Addison's disease will rise to above 2-3 μg/dl after ACTH stimulation in these dogs, and many dogs will show a completely normal cortisol response. In these dogs, a search for other causes of hyperkalemia should be undertaken.
References:
  1. Kintzer PP, Peterson ME. Treatment and long-term follow-up of 205 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med 1997;11:43-49. 
  2. Church DB. Canine hypoadrenocorticism In: Mooney CT, Peterson ME, eds. BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Endocrinology. Fourth ed. Quedgeley, Gloucester: British Small Animal Veterinary Association, 2012;156-166.
  3. Kintzer PP, Peterson ME. Canine hypoadrenocorticism In: Bonagura JD, Twedt DC, eds. Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy, Volume XV. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier, 2014; pp 233-237.
  4. Klein SC, Peterson ME. Canine hypoadrenocorticism: part II. Can Vet J 2010;51:179-184.

2 comments:

Allen Plourde said...

Just to be clear, an endogenous ACTH level test administered after a dog has been initiated on prednisone (for 1 plus month)therapy would very likely result in falsely low values, correct? The hospital diagnosed our dog with atypical hypoadrenocorticism based on ACTH stimulation test. He has been maintaining well on 2.5mg prednisone daily, since. On follow-up with our regular veterinarian, an endogenous ACTH test was performed and she diagnosed with secondary disease based on low ACTH. Not sure where to go from here. He is responding well with prednisone and not sure to trust our vet's diagnosis. If he is atypical, he may progress in primary Addison's-correct? Thus would monitoring of electrolytes be a good idea? Your thoughts? Thank for your time.

Dr. Mark E. Peterson said...

Basically, the label "atypical" means we don't know if it's primary or secondary. To test plasma ACTH in your dog, we would want to lower the pred dose to 0.1 mg/kg/day (or less) for a week and then stop the prednisone for at least 2 days. Otherwise, a low level could be secondary to pred or natural ACTH deficiency.